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软木vs螺旋盖

int(165)

使用螺旋盖的葡萄酒是否能和使用优质软木塞的
葡萄酒一样继续完美的酝酿?
螺旋盖是否是最接近完美的封装方式?
……

软木vs螺旋盖

使用螺旋盖的葡萄酒是否能和使用优质软木塞的葡萄酒一样继续完美的酝酿?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

螺旋盖无法与最优质的软木塞相比。螺旋盖更有可能影响葡萄酒失去原本的特性并限制葡萄酒的酝酿。 螺旋盖可能适合于一些早期饮用的葡萄酒,但我们对螺旋盖封装更为复杂的长期窖藏葡萄酒的影响所知甚少。 目前的观点认为使用螺旋盖的葡萄酒酝酿过程十分缓慢,还有可能酝酿成其他种类的葡萄酒。而对于那些使用软木塞封装的葡萄酒所能呈现的优势,深受酿酒师和消费者的喜爱的特性,螺旋盖可能永远无法仿效。 在螺旋盖最为盛行的市场中,消费者越来越认识到,软木塞与螺旋盖的竞争,其实并不如螺旋盖倡导者所声称的那么简单。

螺旋盖是不是能消除软木塞污染的风险?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

软木不是葡萄酒TCA污染的唯一来源,所以改换密封产品并不能消除TCA污染的风险。此外还存在着一些与软木塞无关的污染,如TBA(三溴苯甲醚)和酒香酵母菌(brettanomycaes),使用螺旋盖则无法防止这些污染。

“受人尊敬的葡萄酒界资深前辈Len Evans(AO和OBE)42年来一直为澳洲航空公司甄选机上的酒品,并且37年来都是评审组的主席。在最近的一次酒评中,他的几位评审同仁们拒绝选用一些葡萄酒,因为这些酒有可怕的‘软木塞污染’。问题是这些‘被污染的’葡萄酒用的都是用螺旋盖!”

悉尼每日电讯报
2006年3月11日

澳大利亚和新西兰的酿酒师正在改用螺旋盖。这是不是表示他们对螺旋盖的效果感到满意?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

酿酒师们已经开始使用螺旋盖,尤其是用在清香型葡萄酒和早期饮用葡萄酒上,但是大多数酿酒师同时也会使用软木塞。 除了担心螺旋盖会导致硫化物气味之外,许多酿酒师还表示他们担心螺旋盖无法适应更为复杂的葡萄酒。 他们担心螺旋盖会减慢酝酿的过程,或基本不产生任何变化,不能陈酿出用软木塞封装所能带来的特性。 有些酿酒师由于对螺旋盖给葡萄酒质量带来的影响感到失望而重新使用软木塞。 我们相信,有了更多的体验之后,酿酒师们会认识到软木封装可以给其葡萄酒带来的价值。

澳大利亚和新西兰的经验表明,消费者一旦了解螺旋盖的优势就会愿意接受螺旋盖产品。其他市场是不是也会慢慢接受螺旋盖产品?这是不是只是一个时间问题?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

完全不是。在所有市场中,绝大多数的消费者都更喜欢软木塞而不是螺旋瓶盖(或是人工制造瓶塞)。 即使在消费者接受替代品的地方,消费者们仍然更喜欢软木塞。40%的美国消费者和30%的英国消费者表示,他们不喜欢买用螺旋盖的葡萄酒。 研究一再表明消费者将软木塞视为天然的并且环保的瓶塞。他们推崇软木塞对葡萄酒的传统意义,以及它能促使葡萄酒随着时间的推移陈酿出有趣并复杂的特性。

螺旋盖是否是最接近完美的封装方式?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

AWRI的瓶塞对比实验得出的结论表明不存在完美的封装方式。任何供应商宣称其拥有完美的产品都是不负责任的行为。 几百年来,软木塞都展现着其卓越的性能。事实上,随着我们对装瓶后葡萄酒化学反应的深入了解,我们不得不惊叹于软木塞对葡萄酒酝酿所作出的独特贡献。 随着我们对软木认识的加深,我们能够进一步提高其性能。

对于酿酒师来说,了解螺旋盖的使用并据此调整葡萄酒酿造工序是否只是时间问题?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

葡萄酒装瓶后的化学变化是一个非常复杂的问题。瓶塞只是影响葡萄酒继续酝酿的因素之一,其他因素包括每种酒的化学成分、顶空进样量和气体成分、游离二氧化硫以及灌装环境等。 虽然已有大量的研究,但葡萄酒研究人员仍未全部了解葡萄酒酝酿过程中如何受到各种因素的影响,因而无法预测更不用说去控制这些因素在酒瓶中的情况了。 Alan Limmer博士等专家认为葡萄酒在灌装后有走味问题是因品种和年份而异,所以酿酒师尝试减低这个可能性的是非常艰巨。 另一方面,几百年来软木塞一直都展现着其卓越的性能。

螺旋盖也更容易在运输和储存过程中遭到物理碰撞受损,且有着氧化的风险。
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

“Taylors Wines首席酿酒师Eggins先生表示,螺旋盖在储存过程中易损坏,从而导致葡萄酒受氧化影响。如果将一批葡萄酒放置于不平的地板上,上面的酒瓶产生的压力可能会损坏下面酒瓶上的螺旋盖。”

GEOFF STRONG 在MELBOURNE AGE中
引用了TAYLORS葡萄酒的首席酿酒师
ADAM EGGINS的评论

(ADAM EGGINS只使用螺旋盖)

螺旋盖是不是能避免随机氧化的问题?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

不是。研究和实践经验表明,所有封装方式都存在一定程度上的差异。事实上,他们发现经过妥善处理的软木塞能表现出显著的一致性。 螺旋盖是否具有高度一致性在很大程度上取决于能否消除所有变数的影响,包括瓶口差异、封盖缺陷和灌装线障碍,螺旋盖的支持者们也都承认所有这些问题。这些变素也会影响软木塞的性能,但据酿酒师反馈,与软木塞相比螺旋盖对灌装生产线管理提出了更大的要求。

螺旋盖不是能避免使用软木塞和工业制造瓶塞时会发生的走味问题吗?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

酿酒人员和研究人员仍然在研究葡萄酒和瓶塞之间的相互作用,包括封装材料吸收葡萄酒中某些气味化合物的能力。 目前工业制造瓶塞似乎最容易导致葡萄酒走味而螺旋盖则几乎不会导致走味。软木则介于两者之间。 在某些情况下气味的改变可能会带来有利的影响,比如冲淡Riesling中的高浓度TDN, 减少煤油味。 一些研究人员还声称软木塞能够去除葡萄酒中的硫化物,但这说法还未经证实。

如Penfold Grange和法国顶级酒庄Domaine des Baumard这样知名的葡萄酒生产商是否真在进行螺旋盖实验并且有些已经开始改用螺旋盖?当他们都改用螺旋盖时,软木塞是否肯定会失去市场?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

高级酿酒师不会忽视市场上的新产品。然而,正如Penfolds的首席酿酒师Peter Gago所说,螺旋盖必须证明他们能够在几十年内保持良好性能并且使葡萄酒能够陈酿出葡萄酒爱好者重视的特性。 酿酒师应当尽职尽责。我们有信心他们会认识到软木塞可以给他们的葡萄酒所带来的价值。这种价值已经得到了几百年时间的验证。

消费者在意软木塞带来的浪漫感和品位吗?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

市场研究一再表明,消费者更钟情软木塞。他们将软木塞视为天然且环保的封装材料。他们推崇软木塞对葡萄酒的传统意义,以及它能促使葡萄酒随着时间的推移发展出有趣并复杂的特性。 即使在螺旋盖盛行的澳大利亚,大多数消费者仍然认为特殊、重要场合饮用的葡萄酒须以软木塞封装,而螺旋盖代表廉价的葡萄酒。 酿酒师应当更为谨慎,不要忽视软木与葡萄酒的关系,正是这种品位使葡萄酒有别于其他的酒水。

使用软木塞封装是不是也会出现硫化物气味?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

虽然在使用软木塞密封的葡萄酒中也会出现一些硫化物气味的现象,但AWRI所做的多项研究表明,这种几率远远低于使用螺旋盖封装的葡萄酒。

科学实验表明,螺旋盖胜过包括软木塞在内的所有其他瓶塞。这不就是确认了螺旋盖是最好的封装方式?
软木小百科-软木vs螺旋盖

多个科学实验包括澳大利亚葡萄酒研究所(AWRI)的瓶塞对比实验得出结论:不存在什么完美的瓶塞。

“针对长期储存的葡萄酒,这项研究测试的瓶塞中没有一个可以完全符合所有评估标准。”

AWRI新闻稿:
“AWRI葡萄酒瓶塞实验第一阶段结果”
2001年7月12日

软木塞,特别是Twin Top 双圆片软木塞,其所有关键参数居于或接近首位,不存在硫化物气味或过早氧化现象。即使在63个月之后,Twin Top软木塞的性能仍然出色。 AWRI前任总监Peter Hoj教授表示,所有的瓶塞都能改进:

“所有瓶塞都可以有更好的性能:软木塞生产商需要进一步减少TCA污染; 螺旋盖生产商还有许多地方有待改进,包括改善透气量、密封垫片及防止螺旋盖碰撞受损;工业制造瓶塞仍然被认为使葡萄酒走味。”

2004年9月11日
澳洲太阳先驱报,第94页
CHRIS SNOW “AUSTRALIA PULLS OUT THE STOPPERS”一文
引用了PETER HOJ教授的评论