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采收及加工

int(283)

软木作为一种原材料的生命周期是从剥离栓皮栎的树皮开始的,这个过程也被称
为采收。在完成树皮采剥之后,软木便进入了加工处理流程,用于生产多种多样
的产品,其中包括软木塞、建筑材料和设计产品等。

软木的采收02-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

软木的采收

软木作为一种原材料的生命周期是从剥离栓皮栎的树皮开始的,这个过
程也被称为采收。在完成树皮采剥之后,软木便进入了加工处理流程,
用于生产多种多样的产品,其中包括软木塞、建筑材料和设计产品等。

九年采剥一次

软木通常在五月中或六月初至八月中或八月底期间由工艺精湛的工人进行采收,
那时栓皮栎处于最活跃的生长阶段。

栓皮栎需要生长25年才能进行首次采收,产出有价值的软木。自此以后,栓皮栎
可每九年采剥一次,时间可以持续平均150年之久。

1

初采软木

第一次采收被称为“desbóia”,采剥的软木
结构非常不规则,质地太硬而难以处理,这就
是所谓的“初采软木”。“初采软木”的质量
与制造软木塞所必须的品质相去甚远,因此只
能用来生产除软木塞之外的其他产品,如地板
和绝缘材料等。

2

重采软木

九年后,第二次采收获得的软木具有规则
的结构且硬度降低,但仍不适合生产软木
塞,被称为“重采软木”。

3

Amadia

从第三次采收开始,软木才达到了生产软
木塞所需的最高品质,其结构规整且性能
稳定,这就是所谓的“amadia”。从此以
后,栓皮栎每隔九年便可以采剥一次优质
软木,一直持续约一个半世纪,在其整个
生命周期内,平均可采收约15次。

软木的采收的六个步骤

栓皮栎采收是一种古老的工艺,整个过程只能由经验丰富的工人来完成。
工人需要具备娴熟的手艺,以免损坏树木。

第一步

垂直切割

首先,选择树皮上最深的裂缝垂直切下,与此同时,旋转斧头边
缘使树皮的内外层分离。操作的难度就在于对斧头的精准感知。
当斧头旋转时,听到的是中空的声音,说明树皮容易分离;如果
听到短促干裂稳固的声音,就是比较难剥的了。

第二步

剥离树皮

之后把斧头边缘插入内外层树皮之间,扭动,分离内外层树皮。

第三步

水平切割

水平切割树皮,这决定采剥下来的软木的大小。分离时,通常都
会在内层树皮上留下印记,它们有时会改变树干的几何形状。

第四步

整块取下

小心剥下树皮以防断裂。采剥的树皮越大,其商业价值就越高。
能否取下整块的树皮完全取决于工人的技术。之后,再重复第一
块树皮的剥离过程。

第五步

清除树屑

树皮剥落后仍会有少量碎片依附在树干底部。为了去除寄生
虫,工人会用斧头轻敲树皮。

第六步

标记年份

最后,工人会在树干上标记当年年份(2014年)的最后一个数
字。因为栓皮栎树皮的生长方向是从内向外,所以写上的数字并
不会被覆盖掉,以方便下一次采剥时辨认。

软木原材料即栓皮栎树皮的晾晒-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

晾晒

采收之后,软木会被堆放在树林或工厂的露天仓库中,继续接
受风吹、日晒、雨淋。所有软木都会依据《国际软木塞生产标
准(ICCSMP)》的严格规定进行堆放,以确保软木的状态趋于
稳定。

软木应堆叠在承托架子之上杜绝软木与土壤进行接触,但必须
确保架子的材料不会污染软木。例如,木材是绝不允许被垫在
软木堆之下的,因为它带有真菌。在此风干阶段,原材料臻于
成熟,软木的状态也变得稳定。根据ICCSMP的规定,软木的
的风干期不得少于六个月。

软木塞的生产-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

软木塞生产工艺

从软木板到最终产品―软木塞,软木会经历一系列的生产阶段,
生产不同类型的软木塞会有不同的生产阶段。天然的软木塞是
由一整块栓皮栎树皮直接冲压而成。

而技术软木塞则是由软木颗粒聚合在一起制成,两端再贴上天
然软木片。

进一步了解