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软木

int(90)

什么是软木?
软木来自哪里?
全世界每年能生产多少软木?
……

软木问答

什么是软木?
软木小百科-软木

软木是栓皮栎(也称,栓皮栎树)的树皮,是纯天然的原材料,具有不可替代的独特品质。它质轻,有防水和阻隔气体渗透,具有弹性,可压缩,隔热和隔音的性能,是阻燃和高耐磨材料。另外,软木百分百可降解,可再生,并可以回收再利用。

一个软木塞中含多少个细胞?
软木小百科-软木

每平方厘米的软木有近4,000万个细胞,一个软木塞里会有近8亿个细胞。

一吨软木可用于生产多少软木塞?
软木小百科-软木

每吨厚软木树皮可以平均生产66,700个软木塞。

不同国家之间的软木品质有何区别?
软木小百科-软木

没有。栓皮栎树的基因是相同的,因此没有显著的差异。然而树与树之间还是会有一些个体差异。

为什么栓皮栎林有天然阻燃性?
软木小百科-软木

由于软木隔热和不易燃烧的特性,栓皮栎比其他树种更耐火。软木的不易燃烧特性使其成为了天然的阻燃材料,对火形成天然的屏障,燃烧时不会释放烟或有毒气体。

为什么要回收软木塞?
软木小百科-软木

环境保护是软木塞回收的一个最重要的原因之一。软木塞可吸收储存于栓皮栎树皮中的CO2粒子。如果被分解或焚烧,会释放CO2到大气中,加速全球变暖。回收软木塞可以使CO2继续储存于软木中而不释放于空气中。每吨软木塞可以吸收1.83吨CO2,回收的软木用途广泛,软木回收后,其储存CO2的功能得以延续。
另一方面,通过软木循环使用,减少资源浪费,也减少生产其他替代用品的双关成本。

为什么栓皮栎又被称之为Quercus suber L.?
软木小百科-软木

栓皮栎树的命名源自于林奈(Linnaeus),他是首位记载此物种的生物学家。

为什么软木与葡萄酒接触可带来健康益处?
软木小百科-软木

软木塞与葡萄酒接触可以形成抗氧化剂和非致癌性的化合物,从而可能降低心脏病和老化的风险。另外,软木业的余料可以提取用于疫苗助剂以强化免疫系统反应的成分。

为什么软木采收是世界上报酬最高的农业工作?
软木小百科-软木

因为软木采收是一门专门的工艺,剥离树皮却不破坏这些珍贵的资源。

什么时候对栓皮栎进行第一次采收?
软木小百科-软木

采收必须等到树木长到25年后、树围达到70厘米,测量离地面1.5米才能进行第一次软木采收。每隔九年采收一次。

什么是采收?
软木小百科-软木

采剥是一个古老的剥离栓皮栎树皮的方法,需要专业人士以高度精准的工艺操作。唯一的工具仅仅是简单的斧头。 每年5月到8月是采收软木的最佳时间,这是栓皮栎生长的最活跃时期,更容易从树干上剥离出树皮。软木采收是世界上报酬最好的季节性农业类工作。

从栓皮栎采收下的软木可以立即使用吗?
软木小百科-软木

不可以。采收之后,树皮被堆叠成堆,在户外天然环境放置至少6个月,以稳定软木的状态。这个过程需要严格按照《软木塞生产实践标准》进行。

全世界每年能生产多少软木?
软木小百科-软木

全世界每年能生产340,000吨软木,其中55%来自于葡萄牙。

哪里可回收软木塞?
软木小百科-软木

我们一直积极推动软木塞的回收项目,在葡萄牙、美国、加拿大、法国、意大利、英国、南非和澳大利亚均有回收项目。 欲了解更多有关软木塞回收项目,请关注以下网站:

葡萄牙: www.greencork.org

法国: www.ecobouchon.com

美国和加拿大: www.recork.org

意大利: www.amorimcorkitalia.com/campagna-etico

软木与细胞的发现过程有何关联?
软木小百科-软木

细胞是由英国科学家罗伯特·虎克(Robert Hooke)于1665年发现的。他将软木薄片放于一台简易的显微镜下观察,发现其由蜂窝状的结构组成,并将这些类蜂窝状结构命名为“细胞”(来源于拉丁语“cellula”,意为小房间)。

软木塞的使用历史有多久?
软木小百科-软木

古埃及人和古罗马时代的人留下了一些使用软木的遗迹。在法国,人们发现了一个装满葡萄酒的公元前三世纪的双耳土罐, 罐中的酒仍保存完好。软木的使用历史可追溯至17世纪末。

软木塞可以回收吗?
软木小百科-软木

是的。软木塞是百分百纯天然的产品,可降解,即使丢弃也不会对环境造成污染。然而,软木塞是完全可回收再利用的。虽然回收后的软木塞不会再用于制造生产软木塞,但其可用于制成地板、墙板、隔热隔音材料、记事板、竞赛的皮划艇、羽毛球拍、网球和板球、汽车和航天飞机部件、时尚衣饰、艺术设计品等等。

软木是濒危的自然资源吗?
软木小百科-软木

不是。软木采收是一个严格监控的过程,不砍伐树木。相反,采剥树皮有利于树木本身的再生。软木业促进栓皮栎林的可持续发展,有利于林区的生态维护和周边居民的生活。一项最近的预测显示,仅在全世界最大的栓皮栎林区,葡萄牙,未来一百年内就有充足的软木以满足市场的需求。

软木来自哪里?
软木小百科-软木

每九年采收软木一次,对树木本身绝无损害。大面积的栓皮栎林分布在地中海西部地区的国家,包括葡萄牙、西班牙、意大利、法国、摩洛哥、突尼斯和阿尔及利亚。

软木由什么组成的?
软木小百科-软木

软木内部是一个由细小的五边形或六边形的细胞组成的蜂窝,内含软木脂(一种络酸),蜂窝内充满了几乎与空气完全相同的混合气体,占其体积的90%。软木的平均密度为200千克每立方米,导热系数较小。

软木能生产能源吗?
软木小百科-软木

是的,软木屑可以用于热发电,有利于能源效率的提升。阿莫林通过使用软木屑产生的能量(生物量)可满足其本身60%能量消耗,这是一种CO2中性能源。由于软木质轻,有隔音隔热的性能,软木也被用于风力涡轮机。

采收软木时需要砍伐栓皮栎吗?
软木小百科-软木

不需要。采用人工采收的方法,不砍伐树木。事实上,栓皮栎的树皮会有一个自我再生的过程,这是栓皮栎采收独特的可持续发展特性。

除了软木,栓皮栎的其他部分可以被利用吗?如果可以,是什么样的应用?
软木小百科-软木

栓皮栎的任何一个部分都不会被浪费,它的所有组成部分都有生态或经济方面的利用价值: 其果实可用于繁衍下一代,用于动物饲料,生产食用油; 其树叶可用于饲料和天然肥料; 树木修剪下的枯枝和枯木可用于提供木柴和木炭。 栓皮栎木质中的单宁酸和自然酸可用于提炼化工和美容产品。

即使软木不再用作葡萄酒瓶塞,它能否被用于其他用途,比如地板和隔热保温材料?
软木小百科-软木

软木塞生产是软木经济的核心。如果不生产软木塞,只生产其他软木产品是不可行的,栓皮栎林将荒废,农民将因面临更大压力而砍伐栓皮栎来改种桉树等更富经济效益的树木。

全球软木供应是否存在短缺情况?
软木小百科-栓皮栎, 软木小百科-软木

葡萄牙的软木能够满足未来100年的需求。在一项欧盟资助的大规模重新造林计划的扶持下,栓皮栎林的面积以每年4%的速度增长。产自阿尔及利亚、突尼斯和摩洛哥等北非国家的高品质软木也已经投入商业化生产。 最重要的是,高品质的技术软木塞实现了软木资源的优化利用。

软木的主要特性有哪些?
软木小百科-软木

质轻
软木是非常轻的材料,每立方厘米仅0.16g,可浮于水。
具有弹性/可压缩
每个软木塞均由近8亿个防水的细胞组成。细胞之间注满了类似于空气的混合气体,可以在体积被压缩一半时其弹力仍会毫发无损,这个被称为弹性记忆。软木是唯一一种固体材料,可以压缩一边,而不增加另一边的大小。这种特性也使软木塞可以在不损坏其完整性的情况下,适应不同的温度和压力。
不渗透性
由于软木内的软木脂和蜡样色素成分,软木可有效阻隔液体和气体的渗透。
耐腐
软木具有高度的抗潮性,因此可以避免持续氧化和腐烂。
隔热隔音材料
软木是卓越的隔热、隔音和防震材料。在葡萄酒方面,软木塞有最好的隔绝性能,保护酒品不受温度变化影响。
可降解、可回收并可再生
软木是一种纯天然的原材料,百分百可降解,可回收并可再生。回收后的软木塞不会再用于生产新的软木塞,但是回收的软木塞的用途是无止境的,有多种应用,例如,建筑材料,时尚衣饰、运动用品、艺术品,航空工业等等。