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软木与栓皮栎

int(413)

栓皮栎是植物界唯一可以持续生产最高品质软木的物种,造就了世界上独一无二的
产业,对于维护Montado地区的生态平衡和保护动植物的多样性来说至关重要。
软木是栓皮栎的树皮,是纯天然的植物组织。栓皮栎盛产软木,是常青树,具有生
命周期长和再生能力强的特点,成年的栓皮栎高度可以达到10至15米。

quercus-variabilis-img-1

特别的树种

栓皮栎是西地中海地区的典型树种,平均可存活200多年,在其生命周期
内,可进行超过15次软的软木采收,每次采收相隔9年。栓皮栎属于常
青树,光合作用的时间比冬天落叶的树木要长。栓皮栎的树叶能够适应
干旱的环境,气候干燥时,树叶上的气孔会关闭以降低蒸腾作用从而减
少水分的流失。

特性

栓皮栎是栎属的一种树木,栗树和橡树也属于此科,形成了包括欧洲和亚洲原有
物种在内的一个亚群-Cerris组。栓皮栎最有趣的特征之一是其质地均匀的树皮—
—软木,具有不渗透水和空气、富有弹性以及隔热的性能。

高品质软木的取材地即栓皮栎林01-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

鲜为人知的事实

栓皮栎是葡萄牙的国宝,自中世纪以来一直受到法律保护,
禁止砍伐。2011年12月,栓皮栎被定为葡萄牙的国树。
栓皮栎被世界自然基金会列为葡萄牙最濒危的物种之一,
同时也是葡萄牙的象征。

高品质软木的取材地即栓皮栎树01-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

栓皮栎的树皮

软木是栓皮栎的树皮。在植物学中,软木是一种被称为木栓的植
物组织,是覆盖在树干外围的周皮结构的组成部分。

软木是100%纯天然的原材料,可以回收和重复利用,也可再生,
其无与伦比的独特品质是工程师们迄今为止都无法复制和超越的。

栓皮栎树皮特殊之处在于,它是由蜂窝状的细胞构成,形成了有
弹性、可防水、具有良好隔热性能的质地均匀的组织,即软木。

软木的采收-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

软木的采收

软木在晚春或夏季进行采收(从5月中旬到8月中旬)。

全球每年收获的软木超过20万吨。葡萄牙和西班牙在栓皮栎林
的覆盖面积上拥有绝对优势,生产的软木占到全球总量的四分
之三以上。葡萄牙在软木产量方面一直领跑全球,平均每年生
产的软木超过10万吨。

进一步了解