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软木与栓皮栎

int(138)

一棵栓皮栎可以采收多少次?
一棵栓皮栎可以存活多久?
世界上最大、最古老的栓皮栎是什么?
……

软木与栓皮栎

什么是采收?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

采剥是一个古老的剥离栓皮栎树皮的方法,需要专业人士以高度精准的工艺操作。唯一的工具仅仅是简单的斧头。每年5月到8月是采收软木的最佳时间,这是栓皮栎生长的最活跃时期,更容易从树干上剥离出树皮。软木采收是世界上报酬最好的季节性农业类工作。

一棵栓皮栎可以采收多少次?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎的生长周期内,大约可采收17次,每隔九年采收一次,所以平均每棵栓皮栎的可采收时间会持续150年。 第一次采收的软木被称之为"初采软木",这些软木的结构高度不规则和硬度不适合加工处理。 隔九年之后第二次采收的软木被称之为"重采软木",具有规则的结构,较第一次采收的软木软一点。 头两次采收的软木都不适合生产软木塞,因此会被用于其他的应用,如隔热隔音材料、地板、装饰用品等等。 这两次采收后的软木称之为"amadia",有规则结构,正面和背面平坦,具有天然软木塞生产的理想特点。

一棵栓皮栎可以存活多久?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎的平均寿命长达200年。

采收软木时需要砍伐栓皮栎吗?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

不需要。采用人工采收的方法,不砍伐树木。事实上,栓皮栎的树皮会有一个自我再生的过程,这是栓皮栎采收独特的可持续发展特性。

世界上最大、最古老的栓皮栎是什么?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

世界上最古老和产值最大的栓皮栎是在葡萄牙Alentejo省, 名为“吹哨树”(Whistler Tree)。这棵栓皮栎被种植于1783年,有14米高,树围达4.15米。它的名字源于栖息在树间的无数鸣鸟产生的鸟声。从1820年开始,它已被采收20余次。在1991年,收割生产了1200千克的软木,超过大多数的软木树一生的产量。这个单一的收割可以生产超过了10万个软木塞。

栓皮栎是如何生长的?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎可以透过播种、种植或自然地繁殖。自然繁殖在栓皮栎林中很常见,因为栓皮栎的果实会自然掉落于地上。

在古希腊,栓皮栎具有什么意义?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

在古希腊,栓皮栎被誉为自由与荣誉的象征,因此,仅有牧师可以砍伐栓皮栎。

不同国家之间的软木品质有何区别?
软木小百科-软木

没有。栓皮栎树的基因是相同的,因此没有显著的差异。然而树与树之间还是会有一些个体差异。

什么时候对栓皮栎进行第一次采收?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

采收必须等到树木长到25年后、树围达到70厘米,测量离地面1.5米才能进行第一次软木采收。每隔九年采收一次。

从栓皮栎采收下的软木可以立即使用吗?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

不可以。采收之后,树皮被堆叠成堆,在户外天然环境放置至少6个月,以稳定软木的状态。这个过程需要严格按照《软木塞生产实践标准》进行。

除了软木,栓皮栎林还有其他的贡献吗?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎林不仅是一个天然的生态系统,在农业、林业、畜牧业、狩猎和其他经济活动方面都有很多的贡献,例如,药用植物和蘑菇的培植,蜂蜜和蜂蜡的生产,煤生产,狩猎,畜牧养殖,观鸟,旅游和骑马。同时,也提供了创造经过欧盟认证的本土食物的契机。 在7个地中海软木生产国家,有超过100,000多人直接或间接地得益于栓皮栎林经济的发展。

什么是栓皮栎?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎是常青树,栎属的一种树木(栓皮栎树),栗树和橡树也属于此科。栎类有465个种类,主要生长于北半球的温带和亚热带地区。软木是属于栓皮栎L物种的。

栓皮栎的理想生长环境是什么?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

栓皮栎原产于地中海盆地西部,那里的生长条件理想:

•多沙,氮和磷含量低的白垩土,钾含量丰富,PH值为4.8到7.0;
•每年降水量为400mm到800mm;
•温从零下5摄氏度到40摄氏度;
•海拔从100米到300米。

为什么软木采收是世界上报酬最高的农业工作?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

因为软木采收是一门专门的工艺,剥离树皮却不破坏这些珍贵的资源。

世界上的栓皮栎林区有哪些?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

据估计,世界上有230万多公顷的栓皮栎林。约716,000公顷在葡萄牙,占该国森林面积的22.5%。世界上一半的软木生产均源自葡萄牙。余下的林区分布于西班牙、意大利、法国、摩洛哥、突尼斯和阿尔及利亚。

为什么栓皮栎林有天然阻燃性?
软木小百科-栓皮栎

由于软木隔热和不易燃烧的特性,栓皮栎比其他树种更耐火。软木的不易燃烧特性使其成为了天然的阻燃材料,对火形成天然的屏障,燃烧时不会释放烟或有毒气体。