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软木塞生产工艺

int(313)

为了得到最终产品——软木塞,软木会经历一系列的生产阶段,生产不同类型的软
木塞会有不同的生产阶段。天然的软木塞是由一整块栓皮栎树皮直接冲压而成。而
技术软木塞则是由软木颗粒聚合在一起制成,两端再贴上天然软木片。

天然软木塞01-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

天然软木塞

天然软木塞的生产经历多个不同阶段,尤以冲孔和筛选两阶段最为重要,
冲孔就是在软木板上冲洞以获得一只软木塞体,筛选就是精心挑选出不同
等级的软木。

生产步骤

蒸煮
稳定
挑选软木板及切条
冲孔
修整
筛选
清洗
商标印刷
包装和运输
蒸煮

蒸煮

软木板(从第三次采收的amadia)在稳定期或晾晒期过后便要在干净的
清水中煮沸。煮沸过程至少持续一小时。煮沸的目的在于:
1.清洁软木;
2.除去水溶性物质;
3.增加其厚度,以降低密度;
4.使软木变得更柔软、更富有弹性。

在煮沸之前,软木细胞被挤压成不规则的形状。但在煮沸过程中,细胞中
的气体开始膨胀,使得软木的结构逐渐规则,体积会扩大20%左右。煮沸
步骤是国际软木塞生产标准规定的一项操作。除了改善软木的内部结构,
这项操作还大大减少了寄生微生物群的数量。许多软木塞制造商使用额外
的步骤来做进一步的杀菌处理。例如,有些制造商会使用动态系统,让清
水在煮沸之前持续循环从而得到净化。

稳定

稳定

煮沸之后的软木会进行持续2~3周的稳定化阶段。只有在经过这个步骤之后,才能挑选木板。稳定是为了使木板平直,并使它们能够为下一步工序作好准备。只有这样才能将软木的结构达到一致以生产软木塞。稳定过程可以减少软木中的水分,使软木达到处理时所需的理想湿度约14%左右。

挑选软木板及切条

挑选软木板及切条

首先木板边缘需要经过处理,并且将边角进行修整。然后进入初步人工评估,木板按照其厚度、孔隙大小和外观进行等级划分。

接着,将它们切成条状,其宽度比要生产的软木塞长度略长。

冲孔

冲孔

冲孔是指对软木条进行手工操作或半自动化操作,按照所需尺寸将软木条冲压制成圆柱形木塞。冲孔过程中的余料就被粉碎成颗粒。那些不能直接用于制造顶级天然软木塞的软木,就会被粉碎成颗粒,用来生产技术软木塞,或者制成绝缘材料、建筑材料和装修中使用的聚合软木产品。

修整

修整

在冲孔后,要对软木塞进行修整,使其表面均匀并且其最终尺寸符合先前的规定。

筛选

筛选

筛选,也叫做分类,旨在将软木塞分成不同等级。通过机器或人工根据软木塞的视觉效果将其分类,有瑕疵的软木塞会被淘汰。

清洗

清洗

修整过后就是清洗,可以使用过氧化氢或过氧乙酸对其清洗。清洗是为了净化和消毒软木塞。微波或臭氧等其他方式的清洗方法也会被使用。

清洗/消毒后,软木塞的潮湿度稳定,能够确保最佳的密封性能并减少微生物污染。

商标印刷

商标印刷

根据客户的要求和所需注册商标类型进行印刷。印刷方式采用食用级油墨印刷、热力处理或激光标记。

印上商标后,木塞表面需要用石蜡或硅树脂进行处理,以便于将软木塞插入瓶口或最终消费者从瓶口拔出。

包装和运输

包装和运输

完成生产后,应将软木塞装进充满SO2(二氧化硫)的塑料袋中,该气体可以有效抑制微生物生长。只有经过这个流程,软木塞才会被运往装瓶公司用来封装葡萄酒或烈酒。

技术软木塞-葡萄牙软木协会图片库

技术软木塞

技术软木塞的生产过程分为三个不同阶段:制造粘合在末端的天然软木圆
片、制造凝聚软木塞塞体、以及粘合软木塞。

生产步骤

制造软木圆片
制造软木塞塞体
粘合软木塞
制造软木圆片

制造软木圆片

和生产天然软木塞一样,用于生产软木片的软木板是要经过筛选和蒸煮的。木板的两侧(树外部较为粗糙的一侧,和离树干最近的部分)要被去除,从而获得厚度统一在6.5mm左右柔软的软木板片。

这些板片用机器冲压成软木圆片,尺寸与生产的软木塞两端的尺寸相同。这些木片会经过光学筛选流程被分类,通常为4个不同的质量等级。

针对软木圆片的清洁,专业公司会有自己特有的纯净水清洗系统,水温设置在70度左右,水中不含氯。清洗之后,软木圆片会被进行干燥处理,在使用之前会储存在筒仓内。

制造软木塞塞体

制造软木塞塞体

技术软木塞的塞体是由生产和冲压天然软木塞时的余料颗粒聚合而成。这些余料用研磨机碾成大小不一的颗粒,再用食用级聚氨酯胶粘合,聚合成不同直径的软木条,然后根据所需塞体长度进行切割。塞体可单独模制或压制。

粘合软木塞

粘合软木塞

通过筒仓,将软木片和聚合体塞入组装机里。当软木圆片经过照相机前面时,相机就会选出木片的哪一端适合与葡萄酒接触。机器会在软木塞的另一端做矩形标记。这个标记会被组装机内的相机探测到,表明这一端将与软木塞体粘接。软木圆片被粘合到聚合塞体的尾端,所使用的胶水已经被美国食品及药物管理局认定为可以与食物接触。

组装后的软木塞需要做烘干处理,以确保胶水完全干透,此后再做打磨或修整。和天然软木塞一样,这些组装的软木塞也需要修整成所需尺寸。接下来的清洗、筛选、表面处理(商标印刷)及包装等过程与制作天然软木塞是类似的。