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生态系统

int(328)

栓皮栎林富有生物多样性的生态系统,为种类繁多的动植物提供理想的栖息环境,
其中有些物种已濒临灭绝。栓皮栎林是当之无愧的地球之肺,每年可吸收1400万
吨CO2,有助于缓解全球变暖、防止土地荒漠化、减少水土流失并调节水循环。

天然瑰宝

栓皮栎林是全球35个生物多样性热点地区之一,与亚马逊热带雨林、
非洲大草原、安第斯山脉以及婆罗洲等齐名。栓皮栎林为160多种鸟儿、
24种爬行动物和两栖动物以及37种哺乳动物提供理想的栖息环境,
其中有些物种已濒临灭绝,例如世界上最濒危的猫科动物伊比利亚猞猁。
栓皮栎林是当之无愧的地球之肺,每年可吸收1400万吨CO₂,有助于缓
解全球变暖、防止土地荒漠化、减少水土流失并调节水循环。

独特而精妙

栓皮栎林是全世界最富生物多样性的生态系统之一。
葡萄牙拥有73.6万公顷的栓皮栎林,占全球总面积的34%,
是全球最大的产地。

在葡萄牙,栓皮栎被视为国树,占全国森林总面积的23%。

ecosystem-img-1-1

分布范围

栓皮栎林保持者微妙的生态平衡,集中在地中海盆地,尤其是受大西
洋影响的伊比利亚半岛南部地区。例如葡萄牙,因拥有全球规模最大
的栓皮栎林而被誉为“软木王国”。

栓皮栎是地中海西部地区的典型树种,主要生长在葡萄牙和西班牙,
亦分布于摩洛哥和阿尔及利亚。在突尼斯、法国南部、意大利西海
岸以及西西里岛、科西嘉岛和撒丁岛也有其踪影。目前,欧洲的栓
皮栎林总面积约为144万公顷,北非的栓皮栎林面积为70万公顷,
其中超过一半的栓皮栎林位于伊比利亚半岛。